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World leaders back long-lasting peace for Ukraine, eye eventual Russia talks

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BURGENSTOCK, Switzerland – World leaders on Sunday backed Ukraine’s independence and territorial integrity, and the need for eventual talks with Russia on ending the war — but left the key questions of how and when unresolved.

More than two years after Russia invaded, leaders and top officials from more than 90 states spent the weekend at a Swiss mountainside resort for a two-day summit dedicated to resolving the largest European conflict since World War II.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy hailed the diplomatic “success” of the event, to which Russia was not invited.

The path was open for a second peace summit, with a view to ending the war with a just and lasting settlement, he added.

“Russia and their leadership are not ready for a just peace,” Zelenskyy told the closing news conference.

“Russia can start negotiations with us even tomorrow without waiting for anything — if they leave our legal territories.”

In Beijing, China hit back on Monday after G7 leaders warned Beijing to stop sending weapons components to Russia, saying their end-of-summit statement was “full of arrogance, prejudice and lies”.

When Group of Seven leaders met last week in Italy, souring trade relations with Beijing as well as tensions over Ukraine and the South China Sea were a focus of their discussions.

The statement released at the end of the summit said China was sending dual-use materials to Russia which were helping Moscow’s war in Ukraine.

Using stronger language than at last year’s summit, the G7 statement also criticized China’s “militarization, and coercive and intimidation activities” in the South China Sea.

On Monday China’s foreign ministry spokesman Lin Jian said the statement had “slandered and attacked China”.

It had “rehashed cliches that have no factual basis, no legal basis, and no moral justification, and are full of arrogance, prejudice and lies,” he said at a regular press briefing.

Moscow, meanwhile, doubled down on its demand for Kyiv’s effective surrender as a starting point for negotiations.

“Reaching peace requires the involvement of and dialogue between all parties,” said the summit’s final communique, backed by the vast majority of countries that attended the gathering at the Burgenstock complex overlooking Lake Lucerne.

The document also reaffirmed a commitment to the “sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of all states, including Ukraine, within their internationally recognized borders.”

Any threat or use of nuclear weapons in the war was “inadmissible”, and food security “must not be weaponized,” it added.

The declaration also urged a full exchange of prisoners of war and the return to Ukraine of “all deported and unlawfully displaced children,” and other unlawfully detained Ukrainian civilians.

But not all attendees backed the joint communique. India, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were among those who did not appear on a list of states endorsing it.

Pavan Kapoor, the head of India’s delegation to the summit, said New Delhi continued to believe that peace “requires bringing together all stakeholders and a sincere and practical engagement between the two parties to the conflict.”

While the declaration committed countries to taking “concrete steps… to further engagement of the representatives of all parties”, it was still not clear how Russia was to be brought into the process.

“The road ahead is long and challenging,” Swiss President Viola Amherd conceded.

Posting on social media platform X, Zelenskyy wrote: “It’s important that all Summit participants supported Ukraine’s territorial integrity because there will be no lasting peace without it.”

But the summit came as Ukraine, outmanned and outgunned, is struggling on the battlefield.

Zelenskyy said the current level of Western military aid was not enough to ensure Kyiv wins the war.

“There is aid. There are serious packages. Is it enough to win? No. Is it late? Yes,” he told reporters.

On Friday, Putin demanded Kyiv’s effective surrender as a basis for peace talks.

His call for Ukraine to withdraw its troops from the south and east of the country, which Russia claims to have annexed, was widely dismissed at the summit.

The Kremlin nonetheless on Sunday insisted that Ukraine should “reflect” on Putin’s demands, citing the military situation on the ground.

“The current dynamic of the situation at the front shows us clearly that it’s continuing to worsen for the Ukrainians,” Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said.

“It’s probable that a politician who puts the interests of his country above his own and those of his masters would reflect on such a proposal.”

Russia on Sunday claimed its troops had captured Zagrine village in southern Ukraine, continuing its progress on the front line.

The Burgenstock talks were framed around areas of common ground between Zelenskyy’s 10-point peace plan presented in late 2022, and a 2023 UN resolution on the war that passed with the support of 141 countries.

Switzerland set a tight remit to try to garner the broadest support by sticking firmly to topics covered by international law and the United Nations Charter — and from there, sketch out a framework towards a lasting peace.

The summit focused on Sunday on food security and freedom of navigation on the Black Sea; nuclear safety and security to curb the risk of a disaster; and humanitarian issues including the return of deported children or the welfare of POWs.

Standing beside Zelenskyy, Chilean President Gabriel Boric told the closing press conference that the summit was not about NATO, left or right political convictions, or North versus South debates.

“This is about respect of international law and human rights as foundational principles of our living together. And this is applicable in Ukraine, in Gaza and in every other conflict in the world,” he said.

Ghana’s President Nana Akufo-Addo stressed the war’s impact on food exports from Ukraine and how the conflict had sent inflation soaring, harming living standards in some of the world’s poorest countries.

“The consequences of the invasion go far beyond the confines of Europe,” he said. “Indeed in many ways, Africa has been the greatest victim.”

Akufo-Addo said a method should be found whereby Russia and China join in the talks process “if we’re ever going to arrive at a definitive settlement”.

Zelenskyy called for Beijing, which refused to send a delegation to the summit due to Russia’s absence, to engage seriously with the developing peace proposals.

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